Design of oil pipelines
project of an oil pipeline
An oil pipeline
is engineering structure of pipeline transport, intended for transportation of oil to a consumer. There are main and field oil pipelines. Main oil pipelines and oil-products pipelines are subdivided into four classes depending on diameter:
- I — 1000—1200 mm
- II — 500—1000 mm
- III — 300—500 mm
- IV — менее 300 mm
In case of reconstruction and new construction of line objects (including motor roads of all categories
) it is necessary to relocate or protect oil pipelines in the light of which our Institute performs works on development of this design documentation. It is carried out along with complex of geological engineering, topographical surveys and a set of other surveys.
Taking into account the fact that oil products transportation facilities are hazardous facilities
, the specialists of the Engineering Infrastructure Design Institute have certificates of the RF Rostekhnadzor for designing these facilities.
Oil pipeline laying-out route
is selected by the criteria of optimality. As these criteria of optimality we accept expenses connected with construction, maintenance and repair of a pipeline during its operation. Metal consumption, operational safety, construction duration, availability of road infrastructure and expenses connected with environmental protection shall also be taken into consideration.
At development of documentation we determine basic characteristics of a pipeline: its diameter, operating pressure, number of pumping stations, on basis of which construction cost is calculated.
Main pipelines, as a rule, are installed underground. In exceptional circumstances pipelines can be laid on ground surface in the embankment (at grade) or on supports (above ground). Such types of laying-out are allowed in deserts, mountains, swamps, in areas of permanently frozen and unstable soil, at transitions over natural and artificial obstacles. Pipeline is singly laid or as a part of parallel pipelines in a common technical right of way. Number of lines in a technical right of way is regulated by limited amount of bulk volume of transported product.
During designing of an oil pipeline
the specialist of our company consider electrochemical corrosion effect on it. Passive and active means and methods are used to protect them. Insulating coatings are used as passive means and electrochemical protection is referred to active methods.
Electrochemical protection is performed by cathode polarization of pipelines. If cathode polarization is carried out using external DC supply, then such protection is called cathode, if polarization is performed by connecting the pipeline to be protected to metal with more negative potential, then such protection is called galvanic.